The Rig Veda contains several hymns which depict Sarasvati as an important river and deity. But the location of this river is unknown. Some archeologists suggest that Sarasvati dried between 3000 BCE and 1800 BCE. Prof. Michael Witzel is of the view that the Vedic Sarasvati River is the cosmic river of the Milky Way which the ancient sages saw as the “road to immortality and heaven.”
The fifth verse in the hymn 10.75 of the Rig Veda associates Sarasvati with Ganga and Yamuna and some scholars use it to speculate about the river’s geographical location:
Here, o Ganga, Yamuna, Sarasvati—attend on this praise of mine, o Śutudrī, Paruṣṇī.
With the Asiknī, o Marudvr̥ dhā, with the Vitastā, o Ārjīkīyā, harken, with the Suṣomā.
The seventh verse in the same hymn depicts Sarasvati as a beautiful woman:
Straight in her course, mottled, glistening, in her greatness she holds encircled the expanses, the dusky realms—
the undeceivable Sindhu, busiest of the busy, dappled-bright like a mare, lovely to see like a beautiful woman.
The hymn 7.95 describes the beauty of the river’s flow and the fertility and life that she brings:
1. She has flowed forth with her surge, with her nourishment—Sarasvati is a buttress, a metal fortress.
Thrusting forward all the other waters with her greatness, the river drives like a lady-charioteer.
2. Alone of the rivers, Sarasvati shows clear, as she goes gleaming from the mountains all the way to the sea.
Taking note of the abundant wealth of the world, she has milked out ghee and milk for the Nāhuṣa.
3. He has grown strong as a manly one among maidens, a bullish bull calf among the (river-maidens) worthy of the sacrifice.
He provides a prizewinner to the benefactors. He should groom his body for winning.
4. And this Sarasvati, the well-portioned, will harken to this sacrifice of ours, taking pleasure in it,
being implored by reverential ones with their knees fixed. With wealth as her yokemate, she is even higher than her companions.
5. Here are (oblations) being poured all the way to you (rivers), along with reverences. Take pleasure in the praise, Sarasvati.
Being set in your dearest shelter, may we stand nearby it like a sheltering tree.
6. And this Vasiṣṭha here has opened up the doors of truth for you, well-portioned Sarasvati.
Strengthen, resplendent one; grant prizes to the praiser. – Do you protect us always with your blessings.
In the post-Vedic period, new attributes got added to Sarasvati and she became the multitalented goddess of wisdom and patroness of arts.
(Translations of the Rig Veda hymns by Stephanie W. Jamison and Joel P. Brereton, OUP, 2014)