“Does Moral Philosophy Rest upon a Mistake?” is the name of the 1912 paper by H. A. Prichard. Moral philosophy has assumed the task of providing a justification for holding a certain kind of view of man’s duty. In his paper Prichard tries to prove that the demand for such a reason or justification is untenable. To defend his position, he makes two arguments. His first argument is that people may try to justify the view that something is their duty by showing that what is their duty is essential to their pleasure, or conducive for some good, but if pleasure and some good are the ultimate goals then people are not treating whatever they assume to be their duty as their duty. In his second argument, Prichard appeals to the things of which we are supposed to be conscious and notes that since the apprehension of duty is automatic, it cannot be supported by reason and what is not supported by reason must be amoral.
Monday, August 31, 2020
“A swinish multitude”—by his use of this phrase, Edmund Burke has conveyed his low opinion of those who become part of mobs and indulge in violence to force society to accept their political agenda. In his Reflections on the Revolution in France, Burke writes: “Along with its natural protectors and guardians, learning will be cast into the mire and trodden down under the hoofs of a swinish multitude.” Burke’s use of the phrase “a swinish multitude” caused a controversy in his time. In his choice of world, the radical politicians and intellectuals saw an attack on the underprivileged.
Sunday, August 30, 2020
“But people tell me that these men are simply old, cold, boring frogs, which creep and hop around people as if they were in their own proper element, that is, in a swamp.” ~ Nietzsche in On the Genealogy of Morals. He was criticizing the English psychologists (the utilitarians) who were preaching that the word “good” was first applied to altruistic actions since such actions are socially useful. Nietzsche believed that the word “good” was first used in Ancient Greece by the noble, mighty, higher-ranking and higher-thinking people whose way of living was in stark contrast to the plebeian, low-minded, weak, common, and vulgar type of life. Nietzsche was right.
The moral philosophers in England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were pro-England. They mostly preached in favor of the status quo (Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Smith, Burke, and others). In France and Germany, during the same period, the moral philosophers were anti-France and anti-Germany (Voltaire, Montesquieu, Kant, Rousseau, and others) and they mostly preached against the status quo. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, England attained great economic and political success—the industrial revolution led to an unprecedented growth in its economy and it became the empire on which the sun never set. France and Germany in this period remained mired in a multitude of political and economic problems. Even in the twentieth century, England has fared better than France and Germany. The lesson to be learned from this is that a nation in which the moral philosophy is dominated by nationalistic philosophers has a better chance of making progress.
Saturday, August 29, 2020
Society is not the aggregate of existing individuals, as the individualists claim. The existing individuals are the inheritors of the society which has been created by the struggles and aspirations, achievements and failures of the past generations. In his philosophy Hegel notes that history of philosophy is at the core of the moral and political values of a nation, and that the critique of moral and political theories goes hand in hand with the political and economic struggle to transform society. Our way of life is determined by not only the moral and political values but also the historical baggage that we have inherited from the past.
Immanuel Kant is the founder of modern conception of reason and morality. He can be seen as a representative of the Enlightenment since he believed that through the use of reason and reform of the political and cultural institutions, a society can be perfected. He sympathized with the French Revolution. He believed, as did most Enlightenment thinkers, that the French Revolution would lead to the rise of a liberal, peaceful, and just society not just in France but across Europe. He preached that universal moral principles, which do not depend on the social order, are possible. He valued independence of mind and regarded paternalism as the worst form of tyranny. He thought that reason and universal moral principles were the key to freeing the human mind. He was convinced that there would be perpetual peace among Republican nations founded on rational moral and political principles. But the failure of the French Revolution and the problems that Germany has faced in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries suggest that Kant’s view that a good Republican society can be founded on reason and universal moral principles is not right—social order and principles of morality are the outcome of a historical, cultural, religious process over which men in any generation have limited control.
Thursday, August 27, 2020
Despite the economic and technological progress that we have made, our mindset has not changed much in the last three thousand years. The yahoos of the ancient and middle ages have become the houyhnhnms of the modern and postmodern periods.
When water becomes stagnant, the scum rises to the top; the same thing happens when a society becomes stagnant. The nations, which were the drivers of the progress in the world in the last three hundred years, have become stagnant in the twenty-first century, with the result that scum has risen to the top of their society and has corrupted their intellectual, artistic, political, and geopolitical agenda.
Wednesday, August 26, 2020
“In ancient times it was necessary to be either anvil or hammer,” wrote Theodor Mommsen in the third volume of the History of Rome. Mommsen’s saying is true not just for the Roman times but for modern times as well The clash of civilizations is the fundamental driver of history—it represents a natural system by which history weeds out the weak civilizations (the anvils) and promotes the ones that are strong (the hammers). It is the hammers among civilizations who win, while the anvils among civilizations decline and fall.
Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Monday, August 24, 2020
Here’s a definition of “axiomism” (a term that I have coined): Axiomism is the conviction that the philosophical opinions that my favorite philosopher holds can never be wrong, because my favorite philosopher's opinions are axioms, which do not need to be established through scientific evidence, nor is there any need to defend them through philosophical arguments. These opinions must be accepted as self-evident facts. In the twentieth century, several philosophical movements contracted the intellectual disease of axiomism.
Sunday, August 23, 2020
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Don Quixote was one of Karl Marx’s favorite books. Marx believed that the important lesson that Quixote had to learn was that not every social order is compatible with knight errantry. Knight errantry is certainly incompatible with the bourgeois order in which Marx saw the last vestiges of chivalry being ridiculed and shunned. In Capital, Marx writes: “This much, however, is clear, that the Middle Ages could not live on Catholicism, nor the ancient world on politics. On the contrary, it is the mode in which they gained a livelihood that explains why here politics, and their Catholicism, played the chief part. For the rest, it requires but a slight acquaintance with the history of the Roman republic, for example, to be aware that its secret history is the history of its landed property. On the other hand, Don Quixote long ago paid the penalty for wrongly imagining that knight errantry was compatible with all economic forms of society.”
Aristotle defines politics as a practical science. But was he aware of the practical political realities of his time? He was living in Athens, in a time of tumult. Yet he does not talk about the threat to Athens from Macedon. In his work on political theory Politics, Aristotle mentions Macedon twice, both times in a non-political context. Where did his loyalties lie: Athens or Macedon? He had lived and worked in Plato’s Athenian Academy for more than twenty years, but left Athens in 343 BC to become a tutor to the prince of Macedon, Alexander. Four years later, in 339 BC, Athens was conquered by King Philip II of Macedon. How did Aristotle feel about the conquest of Athens? Did he support the Macedonian takeover of Athens or did he oppose it? Plato is often seen as an idealist, but he displays a better awareness of the political realities in some of his dialogues than Aristotle, who is often seen as a realist, does in his own works.
Friday, August 21, 2020
As the power of the state grows, the power of moral principles decline because the government enacts new laws and implements new restrictions which impinge upon the alternatives between which the people have to exercise their moral judgement for making their choices. When everything is regulated, nothing is moral.
Thursday, August 20, 2020
People of any nation have two alternatives: either they can identify themselves by their race and religion, or by their history and nation. If they don’t identify by either of the two alternatives then their community will be ripped apart by the forces of pathological liberalism, individualism, and multiculturalism and turned into a heap of dry sand which the wind scatters in all directions. History of the last four hundred years tells us that those nations have made progress where the individualism and liberty of the people was rooted in a common identity: for instance, England from the middle of the seventeenth century to the middle of the twentieth century; the USA from the nineteenth century to the 1960s; Japan from 1950 till today; South Korea from 1965 till today. Even in China, a communist country, a sense of common identity has led to better outcomes.
Wednesday, August 19, 2020
Happiness generally adorns the life of the man who is naive and ignorant. There is no possibility for a man of wisdom and knowledge to find happiness. A man of wisdom and knowledge is aware of too many problems; his days and nights are spent obsessing about the lost opportunities to solve these problems. A naive and ignorant man knows little about the world’s problems, so he can hope for a better future; he can look at life as a beautiful fairytale. A man of wisdom and knowledge knows too much to be hopeful; he cannot avoid pessimism; he cannot avoid looking at life as an unending nightmare and a tragedy.
They are no man—the socialist sons of Marx;
Proletariat is the best, they say, bourgeoisie the worst;
They have no tails, but it’s marvelous to see,
These creatures swinging from tree to tree,
Preaching that in the Marxist utopia everything is free,
And the monkeys have total equality.
Philosophy lives and dies in abstract thinking. If you have no capacity for abstract thinking, then you cannot make progress in philosophy. But if your worldview is founded entirely on abstract thinking, then your philosophy will be rationalistic and utopian. Therefore, while navigating the river of philosophy, a philosopher must keep his feet planted in two boats simultaneously: one foot in the boat of the real world and the other foot in the boat of abstract thought.
Tuesday, August 18, 2020
The essence of Platonic political theory is that all political systems are flawed. In the Republic, five types of regimes are examined—Aristocracy, Timocracy, Oligarchy, Democracy, and Tyranny—and problems are found in each one of them. The essence of Aristotelian politics is that the nature of the regime is inconsequential. As long as the kingdom is stable, and a leisurely life of metaphysical contemplation for the intellectual elite is possible, the regime can be tolerated. When Plato becomes the tutor of the tyrant of Syracuse, he makes heroic efforts to get the tyrant to accept his moral and political ideas, but his efforts cannot make a dent in the wall of political reality. Plato’s suspicion of all types of regimes is an outcome of his failure in Syracuse. After Plato’s death, Aristotle was asked by Philip II of Macedon to become Alexander’s tutor. Aristotle accepted the job without any philosophical and political agenda. There is no evidence that Alexander learned any moral and political theory from Aristotle.
Those who refuse the sword must renounce the sceptre. In ancient times, this principle was widely accepted. Those were the times of simple politics. We live in a complicated age—an age when political movements appear suddenly and unexpectedly and usurp power. What is the source of their power: Is sword their source of power? Is it ideology? Is it the size of their mob? Is it the nature of their political agenda?
Monday, August 17, 2020
Aristotle defines man as a rational animal. In his essay, “An Outline of Intellectual Rubbish,” Bertrand Russell responds to the Aristotelian notion by invoking a list of human irrationalities and follies. Russell writes: “Man is a rational animal—so at least I have been told. Throughout a long life, I have looked diligently for evidence in favor of this statement, but so far I have not had the good fortune to come across it, though I have searched in many countries spread over three continents. On the contrary, I have seen the world plunging continually further into madness. I have seen great nations, formerly leaders of civilization, led astray by preachers of bombastic nonsense. I have seen cruelty, persecution, and superstition increasing by leaps and bounds, until we have almost reached the point where praise of rationality is held to mark a man as an old fogey regrettably surviving from a bygone age.” Russell is calling men irrational because he judges their actions by rational standards. When Aristotle defines man as a rational being he too is invoking the rational standards. Therefore, Russell is, not rejecting the Aristotelian definition of man.
Liberty and free markets are not the magic wand, a wave of which will make a nation prosperous. There are several nations in which there is hardly any economic regulation, primarily because their economy is too meager to be worth regulating—these nations are the world’s most backward places where people live in hellholes inflicted with poverty, disease, and crime. A nation might have liberty and free markets, but the people will not be able to take advantage of these values if they are lacking in intelligence, honesty, knowledge, moral principles, ambition to excel, and work ethic.
Sunday, August 16, 2020
The twenty-first century will be the first century in three thousand years to record a steep decline in human population. Perhaps this century will herald the beginning of the end for our species. In this universe, there is no mercy for creatures that have lost their will to survive. The fate of the dinosaurs awaits us if we can’t rediscover that instinct which Nietzsche calls “the barbaric (romanticist) will to power (survival).”
Saturday, August 15, 2020
The religious movements are more influential and long-lasting than the ideological movements. The appeal of the ideological movements never extends beyond the intellectual and political circles in one or two nations, and they become obsolete within a generation. But the religious movements like Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, and others have survived for several millennia—they have had a massive impact on the culture and politics of not only the nation where they were founded but in many other nations.
History is not meant to be read as a story of the past events; it is meant to be read philosophically, in the sense that it offers perspectives on the rise and fall of cultural and political institutions and on the religious and moral thought which once enabled large groups of people to identify with each other and cooperate for establishing and defending political communities (city-states or nations).
Friday, August 14, 2020
The individualists think that they are outside Aristotle’s definition of man. They think that they don’t need to be part of a political community (culture and nation) to survive and thrive.
Edward Gibbon and Edmund Burke were contemporaries, but they did not see eye to eye on political matters. Gibbon, inspired by the atheistic thought of the French philosophes, was a supporter of the French Revolution and the Jacobin cause, whereas Burke stood for a conservative worldview and was a critic of the French Revolution and the Jacobins. After 1790, when it became clear that the French Revolution was a failure, as Burke had predicted, Gibbon tried to dissociate himself from the French philosophes by claiming that his atheism was inspired by the work of Conyers Middleton and not the philosophy that was driving the French Revolution. He became an admirer of Burke’s work—in a letter to Lord Sheffield (5 February 1791), Gibbon wrote: “Burke's book is a most admirable medication against the French disease, which has made too much progress even in this happy country. I admire his eloquence, I approve his politics, I adore his chivalry, and I can even forgive his superstition.”
Thursday, August 13, 2020
History transforms the past, instead of explaining it. When a historian writes a work of history, he develops a new view of the past. All works of history are a compromise between what really happened, and how the historian has interpreted the events. No historian can take all the historical events of any age into account. He concentrates on some of the events which he considers important and he ignores the other events—no work of history can provide a full picture of the past. There are as many versions of the past as there are works of history.
Liberty is a good thing, but the demand for total liberty is a conspiracy to push society into nihilism and lawlessness which are usually a prelude to the establishment of a new tyranny. Those who become part of movements which demand total liberty miss one essential feature of liberty: the concept characterizes freedom within the limits of not only human psychology and human body but also culture and traditions. Liberty does not imply freedom from everything. No man can ever be so free that he is free of his mental capacities, skills, just obligations, gender, sexuality, the traditions of his ancestors, and the laws of his society. To demand freedom from everything is as ridiculous (or vile) as demanding freedom from gravity.
Wednesday, August 12, 2020
Plato’s Symposium is set in a drinking party where Agathon’s victory in a dramatic competition is being celebrated. The guests at the party compete with each other in making speeches about the nature of love. Aristophanes narrates the myth of the origin of the human race. At first, he says, the humans had four arms, four legs, and so on—they were like two humans of our time fixed to each other, and they possessed enough strength and competence to challenge the hegemony of the gods. To outclass the humans, the gods split them two—thus the “half-creatures,” the humans with two legs, two arms, and so on, came into being. From that point of time, the men, who were transformed into the half-creatures, have been lusting for the other half of their body. They ineffectively try to satiate this lust through sexual love of the opposite sex. When a man loves a woman, or a woman loves a man, they are, at a subconscious level, trying to love the lost half of their own body. In his speech, Socrates spoke about what he had learned from the priestess Diotima, who preached that love is never satisfied with anything in this world, because nothing in this world can be good. You have to make an ascent from the particulars of this world to the abstractions of the world of Forms to discover the good.
Tuesday, August 11, 2020
The concept of man’s rights is intelligible only against the background of a social order. When there is no social order, the concept of man’s rights becomes incoherent. The natural world does not recognize man’s rights. In a state of nature, man has no rights. The existence of a social order or a nation is a necessary condition for the concept of man’s rights to become coherent.
Monday, August 10, 2020
The creatures in this world can be divided into two categories: the hunters and the hunted. This holds true for humans as well. Men are either preying on other men or they are the prey. They are either the wolves or the sheep. The sense of reason that the men possess adds a layer of complexity to their needs. An animal is motivated by the desire for food, sex, and shelter; the interests of men, on the other hand, is fueled by their lust for power, pleasure, and property. The ultimate avenue for acquiring power, pleasure, and prosperity is politics which is generally dominated by men who have mastered the art of pandering to the vices of the wolves and the fears of the sheep to get what they want.
Creating a nation of liberty and free markets is one thing, and asking and answering philosophical questions about liberty and free markets quite another thing. Philosophy is not politics; it is not action; it is essentially an after-the-event activity. Philosophy can be used to explain the nature of liberty and free markets, but it cannot be used to create a nation which enjoys the values of liberty and free markets.
Sunday, August 9, 2020
Being an amoralist is not the sign of irrationalism. An intellectual can be lacking in moral sense, while an uneducated person can be a staunch moralist. The choice of moral principles is pre-rational or pre-reason: people pick up their basic moral ideas between the ages of two and five when they are too young to make use of their faculty of reason. Amoralism, on the other hand, is the conscious choice of a rational adult. To deny the moral ideas that you had picked up as a child, you need to make full use of your reason. This is why nihilism, a social manifestation of amoralism, generally effects the intellectualized sections of society. Those who have no exposure to philosophy and art rarely fall prey to nihilism.
Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius stands at the beginning of the Middle Ages, and Machiavelli, the diplomat and classical realist philosopher and historian, stands at the end of it. The distance between Marcus and Machiavelli, of about 1300 years, is known as the Middle Ages. In history of philosophy, the Middle Ages do not get even a fraction of the attention that is given to Ancient and Modern philosophy because, when philosophy took an atheistic turn in the eighteenth century, the philosophers started suppressing the achievements of the Middle Ages when the religious institutions were the driving force in philosophy, science, art, and politics.
Saturday, August 8, 2020
When people are consumed by fear of the worst and they start preparing for it, they are playing an extremely dangerous game, which has the potential to inspire the political forces, which want to bring the society to its knees, to redouble their efforts for ensuring that the worst is unleashed.
In his review of Sartre's novel Nausea, Camus describes what makes the great novelist: “A novel is never anything but a philosophy put into images. And in a good novel, the whole of the philosophy has passed into the images. But if once the philosophy overflows the characters and action, and therefore looks like a label stuck on the work, the plot loses its authenticity and the novel its life. Nevertheless, a work that is to last cannot dispense with profound ideas. And this secret fusion between experiences and ideas, between life and reflection on the meaning of life, is what makes the great novelist.”
Friday, August 7, 2020
History tells us that “expansion” and “expression” march hand in hand. The nations which are successful in “expanding” their frontiers, by military, economic, and diplomatic measures, generally excel in “expression.” They are overflowing with intellectual energy and they “express” themselves in great works of art, literature, history, philosophy, and theology. But the communities which remain confined to their own geographical area, and rarely try to conquer new territories, tend to become intellectually stagnant. They have no art, no history, no literature, no philosophy, and no theology. The ability to conduct brutal military campaigns is conducive for intellectual activities (as long as the military campaigns are successful and the empire is politically stable).