Wars are destructive but cannot be avoided, and when nations go to war, there is every justification for using the most effective methods of waging and ending the war—if conventional weapons are not effective, then atomic weapons can be used to break the enemy nation’s spirit and force it to surrender. There is nothing unique about the devastation caused by atomic weapons. The Rwandan genocide is a case in point—between 7 April and 15 July 1994, the Hutu and Tutsi tribes in Rwanda butchered an estimated 500,000 to 1,000,000 people using stones, sticks, knives, spears, and fire. The death toll in the Rwandan genocide, conducted with Stone Age and Bronze Age weapons, is greater than the death toll from the use of atomic weapons in Japan in 1945. I have no patience for the views of peaceniks.